Muscular Dystrophy

Dr. Ramesh Bhardwaj D.H.M.S  •  Dr. Puja Bhadel Bhardwaj  M.D.

  

Muscular dystrophy refers to a group of genetic, hereditary muscle diseases that cause progressive muscle weakness. 
Muscular dystrophy is characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness, defects in muscle proteins, and the death of muscle cells and tissue. 

 


Types of Muscular dystrophy

Becker`s muscular dystrophy
Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is a less severe variant of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and is caused by the production of a truncated, but partially functional form of dystrophin. Survival is usually into middle age. 

Congenital muscular dystrophy
Age at onset: birth; symptoms include general muscle weakness and possible joint deformities; disease progresses slowly; shortened life span.

Congenital muscular dystrophy includes several disorders with a range of symptoms. Muscle degeneration may be mild or severe. Problems may be restricted to skeletal muscle, or muscle degeneration may be pair with effects on the brain and other organ systems. Some forms of congenital muscular dystrophy show severe brain malformations, such as lissencephaly and hydrocephalus.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common childhood form of muscular dystrophy. DMD usually becomes clinically evident when a child begins walking. Patients typically require a wheelchair by age 10 to 12 and die in their late teens or early 20s. In the early 1990s, researchers identified the gene for the protein dystrophin which, when absent, causes DMD. The dystrophin gene is the largest known gene in humans. Since the gene is on the X-chromosome, this disorder affects primarily males. Females who are carriers have milder symptoms. 

Distal muscular dystrophy
Distal muscular dystrophies` age at onset: 40 to 60 years; symptoms include weakness and wasting of muscles of the hands, forearms, and lower legs; progress is slow and not life-threatening.

Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy
Age at onset, childhood to early teens. Symptoms include weakness and wasting of shoulder, upper arm, and shin muscles; joint deformities are common; progress is slow; sudden death may occur from cardiac problems. 

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) initially affects muscles of the face, shoulders, and upper arms with progressive weakness. Symptoms usually develop in the teenage years. Some affected individuals become severely disabled. The pattern of inheritance is autosomal dominant, but the underlying genetic defect is poorly understood. 

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy`s is also called LGMD. LGMD`s all show a similar distribution of muscle weakness, affecting both upper arms and legs. Many forms of LGMD have been identified, showing different patterns of inheritance. In an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance, an individual receives two copies of the defective gene, one from each parent. The recessive LGMDs are more frequent than the dominant forms, and usually have childhood or teenage onset. The dominant LGMDs usually show adult onset. Some of the recessive forms have been associated with defects in proteins that make up the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. 

Myotonic muscular dystrophy

Myotonic MD`s age at onset: 20 to 40 years
Myotonic muscular dystrophy is the most common adult form of muscular dystrophy. It is marked by myotonia as well as muscle wasting and weakness. Myotonic dystrophy varies in severity and manifestations and affects many body systems in addition to skeletal muscles, including the heart, endocrine organs, eyes, and gastrointestinal tract. While the exact mechanism of action is not known, this molecular change may interfere with the production of important muscle proteins.

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy
Oculopharyngeal MD`s age at onset:
 40 to 70 years; symptoms affect muscles of eyelids, face, and throat followed by pelvic and shoulder muscle weakness, has been attributed to a short repeat expansion in the genome which regulates the translation of some genes into functional proteins. 

 


Principal symptoms include:
* Progressive Muscular weakness
* Poor Balance and Frequent Falls
* Walking Difficulty
* Waddling Gait
* Calf Pain
* Limited Range of Movement
* Muscle Contractual
* Respiratory Difficulty
* Drooping Eyelids
* Scoliosis (curvature of the spine)
* Inability to walk

The prognosis for people with muscular dystrophy varies according to the type and progression of the disorder. Some cases may be mild and progress very slowly over a normal lifespan, while others produce severe muscle weakness, functional disability, and loss of the ability to walk.

Role of homoeopathic medicine:-
To a family with a child with muscular dystrophy, it must seem like the worst disease. To what extent might the remedy enable the sufferer to overcome the existing condition? There is considerable good news. 

Homoeopathic remedy has proven that there is a way to lead a healthy and normal productive life for muscular dystrophy. Good diet and homeopathic remedy found to be very effective and successful in muscular dystrophy patients.

It is found that, with the start of medicine there is gradual improvement in the patient’s condition with marked improvement in muscle strength, improved sleeping and eating patterns and weight gain within 1-2 months. Early initiation of treatment in the course of this disease can help a lot in reducing future disability and prolonging survival.

Patients unable to lift their hands before treatment were able to do so after treatment and their speech and walking ability improved as well. And with long term medicine patient can lead a normal healthy and productive life.